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Their conclusion is the integration of the blockchain technology with devices in a smart city will create a common platform where all devices would be able to communicate securely in a distributed environment (Biswas and Muthukkumarasamy, 2016).

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verus_2334457He’s labelled the token’s recent/current price structure as "the very definition of UGLY", pointing to a bearish head-and-shoulders formation with apparently little supporting action for ADA below the US$0.40 level. Hmm… just one take, but something to keep an eye on.

That said, Delphi also indicates in a Twitter thread that despite a potentially bleak or boring short-midterm price outlook for the market, it’d definitely be a mistake to give up or tune out on crypto at this time.

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They’re far from alone – seems like every man, woman and DOGE on Crypto Twitter is calling for a $10k BTC bottom at the moment. And the New York crypto research firm Delphi Digital’s latest analysis reportedly predicts "more pain ahead for risk assets", Binance too, with potential BTC support down at US$15k or even US$9k-$12k.

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It provides both signing and encryption for parts of network packages. Those keys are distributed in one of two ways depending on how an end node joins the network. The first way by which an end node is allowed to join a LoRaWAN is through ABP. As the end node already has the information and keys they need, they can begin communicating with the network server without the need for the network to join the procedure. The NwkSKey is used for network layer security, and the AppSKey is used for application layer end-to-end security. In this way, each end node is deployed with a unique 128-bit AppKey, which is used when the end node sends a join request message. These are performed using symmetric keys known both to the end node and to the network server, BNB as well as the application server located behind the network server. The join request message is not encrypted, but is signed using this AppKey, which includes the end node’s unique AppEUI and DevEUI values plus a DevNonce which should be a randomly generated two-byte value. These three values are signed with a four-byte message integrity code. Compared with other IoT solutions, the LoRaWAN protocol is equipped with very good built-in security mechanisms based on proven advanced encryption standard (AES) cryptography, including the considerations of mutual authentication, integrity protection and confidentiality. The DevEUI should be a globally unique identifier for the device. If valid, the server will respond with a join accept message within the receive windows of the end node. Once an end node has joined a LoRaWAN network, through either OTAA or ABP, all future messages will be encrypted and signed using a combination of NwkSKey and AppSKey. The AppEUI should be unique to the owner of the device. The network server generates its own nonce value (AppNonce), and calculates the end node’s two new 128-bit keys: the AppSKey and the NwkSKey. As the NwkSKey key is only known by the network server and the specific end node, and the AppSKey key is only known by the application server and the end node, there should be no way for another end node or a person in the middle attack to recover the cleartext data. Even the network server cannot decrypt the application data when it has no the AppSKey in some LoRaWAN deployments (LoRa Alliance, 2017b). The end node is shipped with the DevAddr and both communication session keys: the network session key (NwkSKey) and the app session key (AppSKey) in advance, which should be unique to the end node. The server should check the values and then re-calculate the message integrity code with the AppKey.

A sorted Merkle tree is a tree where all the data blocks are ordered using an ordering function. From the above example, it is clear that in order to verify the presence of ‘a’, ‘a’ does not have to be revealed nor do ‘b’, ‘c’, ‘d’ have to be revealed, only their hashes are sufficient. Therefore Merkle proof provides an efficient and simple method of verifying inclusivity, and is synonymous with "proof of inclusion". This ordering can be alphabetical, lexicographical, numerical, etc.

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